IT vendor risk management is a component of over all IT risk management. In my previous blog on over all IT risk management, there is a comment from pmhut to expand each component of the IT risk management. Let me expand my thoughts on IT vendor risk management and provide a framework to develop the IT vendor risk management.
Steps to develop a IT vendor risk management plan:
- Develop a consolidated list of all IT vendors
- Categorize the vendors broadly
- Prioritize the vendors in each category based on the type of business you are in. For instance, if IT supports retail business, the Point of Sale is key functioin and the vendors supporting that line of business is very critical to the day to day operation. It will have top most priority than any other vendors.)
- Identify the potential risk of the vendors
- Analyze the potential risk of the vendors
- Develop residual risk matrix
- Monitor the residual risk matrix and repeat from step 4.
- Report the residual risk matrix to CIO office periodically.
Step I: Develop a consolidated list of all IT vendors
Get a IT vendor list from corporate purchase/procurement department. Make sure the following information are available
- Account representative contact information – Office Phone, cell phone, snail address, email address
- Investor contact information – Depends on the type of the company – corporate, partnership, properitary and etc
- Client list
Step II: Categorize the vendors
Types of vendor involved in a typical IT organization.
- Sourcing provider
- Alliance provider (like out sourcing provider)
- Human resource provider for in sourcing. It is generally for time and material model for 6 months to 1 year engagement
- Consultant provider for insourcing. It is generally for time and material model for a specialized role for a very short time.
- Software provider
- Enterprise software system provider (like SAP, Peoplesoft, Fidelity and etc). Enterprise software system depends on the type of business.
- Office software (like MS Office,and etc)
- Specialized software provider (for instance, in the financial industry, quantum is a specialized treasury software provided)
- Service provider
- Infrastructure service provider (in most cases, it includes all the system software like OS, database and etc)
- Research consulting service provider (market research and etc – like gartner.com, executiveboard.com)
- Specialized service provider (depends on type of business – credit score card development provider and etc)
Step III: Prioritize the vendors
Prioritize the vendors based on their dependencies to the core IT operation. It depends on the business you are in. If there is alliance provider to performing lights on support to an IT organization, then that provider play a vital role in IT operation. For an instance, if it is financial administration company (like financial out sourcing) then their enterprise application like SAP financial plays a major role to perform their core operation.
Lately, almost all organization utilizes the outsourcing company to provide lights on service to the core IT operation.
Step IV: Identify the potential risk of the vendors
Sourcing provider (includes alliance and out sourcing provider) is taken as an example and the associated risk are identified. The similar steps can be taken for other types of vendors.
Service level risk
Measure the performance of the provider against the objective set in the beginning of the engagement. In some cases, the sourcing provider is selected to provide partnership or alliance to improve innovation or business consultation or value creation and few other cases, the provider is selected to provide the on going lights on support. In my example, I will assume the provider is selected to provide the on going lights on support. The typical performance measure for the lights on support are given below:
- Service quality
- Service delivery time
- Missed service level
- Response time
- Resolution time
- Problem repeatability rate
For an outsourcing engagements after the due diligence and contract and terms & conditions are agreed by all parties, there are two major phases. Transition phase and stabilization phases. The sample performance measure listed above will be used for the risk identification after the stabilization phase.
Receive the trend data for the performance measure and compare against the original agreement with the provider. Develop a variance analysis and repeat the cycle. If there is a negative variance in the measure for a prolonged duration then there is an issue. There is a risk that provider to continue under perform and impact the core IT operation.
Vendor Financial stability risk
I would not have come up with this as one of the potential risk item before Satyam scandal. I would not had even considered it before the scandal.
- Participate in quarterly earning call
- Study the provider balance sheet
- Study the probability of liquidation or solvenacy
- Identify your contribution percentage to the provider’s bottom line
- Identify their auditors reputation.
Vendor strategy risk
Request vendor to provide their corporate strategy and make sure their direction is aligned to your expectation of their service. If provider corporate strategy is to out of service business and sell software products, then organization currently receiving provider’s service need to know that. There is a risk that the provider will not focus on the service in near future and their service quality will deteriorate
Vendor cultural risk
It is a philosophical discussion. It depends on the philosophy you believe in. Few believes, same behavioural partners will lead into the strong longer marriage and few believe the opposite. I have an unpublished paper on “Q-learning algorithm for a quick and better mutal understanding of marital partners in the east Indian arranged marriage culture”. Two years after my arranged marriage (I saw my wife a week before my marriage) I wrote this paper. This paper assumes that both partners have commitment before the marriage that no matter what happens, they are going to make their marriage successful.
I will leave the vendor cultural risk assessment up to your belief. Whatever your believe, the vendor cultural risk must be assessment.
Vendor Geo-political risk
Majority of the outsourcing players are from India. Geo-political risk for an outsourcing project has been a factor all the time. When it comes the analysis of the risk and probability of occurance, it used to score very low. In the recent past, as mentioned in my previous blog, it is elevated.
Vendor take over risk
In the financial world, when a small fish swims with strong cash gills, the big fish will swallow for good.
The above identified risks are the major risks I could think of. There are few risks like provider employee retention and etc.. Those risk can be amplified based on type of organization you are in. I heard many times that business knowledge like electronic fund transfer knowledge will be lost if the provider keep losing their employees. In my opinion, those are very insignificant risk because eft can be learned by any programmer very quickly. However there are areas like 3D drafting package development out sourcing. Systems like this needs extensive analytical geomentry mathematical knowledge, programming language knowledge, device drivers knowledge and etc. It is very difficult to get people with all the skills. Mathematicians with extensive computer engineering hands on experience with executive level communication skills. The initial training for these kind of development would take 8 – 10 months. These are rare cases and I’m not going to expand.
Step V: Risk analysis
All the above identified risk should have:
- Probabaility of occurance
- Cost of business impact if the risk becomes an issue
- Risk treatment
- Retention (accept it)
- A plan for avoidance, redution and transfer risk treatments
Step VI: Residual Risk Matrix
The residual risk matrix is a consolidated vendor risk exposure to the organization.
Step VII: Monitor Residual Risk Matrix
A dedicated team and process to monitor the residual risk matrix of the organization.
Step VIII: Reporting
Report the RRM to the CIO, steering committe and operating committe of vendor management for a proactive informated decisions.